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Press Kits

2003 Toyota Prius Press Kit



Toyota has introduced a second-generation Prius which takes the mass-production hybrid vehicle to a new level of performance, space and user friendliness.

Toyota’s new Hybrid Synergy Drive system delivers a paradigm shift - to escape inevitable trade off between fuel efficiency and power.

The new five-seat triangular monoform liftback Prius has interior space and performance equal to a conventional 2-litre car, coupled with improved fuel economy and lower emissions than the superseded Prius.

It also has improved active and passive safety, suspension and aerodynamics.

World firsts in new Prius include motor traction control for its electric motor and electronic inverter compressor – to provide air conditioning even when Prius’ petrol engine is switched off.

Toyota firsts include electronically controlled brakes and electric steering assistance as part of Prius’ optional vehicle stability control system.

Special features in new Prius include EV Drive Mode, which allows the vehicle to be driven for up to two kilometres and at low speeds on electric propulsion only - depending on road gradient, state of battery charge and accelerator pedal angle.

Hybrid Synergy Drive’s electronic control technology combines the Toyota Hybrid System II, electronic throttle, electronically controlled brakes, electronic shift switch and electronic inverter compressor.

The new Prius has significantly improved performance, with 0-100km/h acceleration time slashed by two and a half seconds (to 10.9 seconds) compared with the superseded model.

Fuel economy has been improved to 4.4 litres /100km (tested to ADR 81/01 under controlled factory conditions).

Hybrid Synergy Drive Prius therefore uses up to 50 percent less petrol than an equivalent-sized conventional car and emits about half the carbon dioxide.

Prius’ coefficient of drag has been slashed from 0.29 to 0.26.

Key contributors to Prius’ improved performance include increasing electric motor output 1.5 times by boosting the supply voltage to a maimum of 500 volts, and significant advances in the control system.

Toyota has also developed advanced new features – such as energy optimisation management. The new Prius has 51.5 percent greater electric motor power and 7.5 percent more petrol engine power than the superseded model.

The new Prius electric motor has the highest output per unit of weight and volume for any electric motor in the world.

The Toyota Hybrid System II in new Prius seamlessly combines the power of an advanced 1.5-litre petrol engine and the electric motor.

The Atkinson Cycle, VVTi-equipped engine was designed for maximum efficiency.

It delivers 57kW of power at 5000rpm and 115Nm of torque at 4000rpm. The petrol engine automatically switches off when the car is stationary or coasting.

Energy that is not required to propel the car is converted to electricity and stored in a sealed 201.6 Volt battery, for use when required.

Regenerative braking allows the vehicle to convert kinetic energy into additional electricity.

Prius has a unique computer-controlled constantly variable transmission, which allows the car to drive as a seamless automatic.

Apart from its unique drive system, Prius is a fully specified normal five-door liftback, capable of seating five adults comfortably.

It requires no special training to drive, does not require external charging, uses 91 RON unleaded fuel and has 456 litres of luggage capacity.

Specification levels are significantly higher than in superseded Prius – including front fog lights,15-inch alloy wheels, 60/40 split rear seat, cruise control, motor traction control, brake assist, push button start, audio and air conditioning controls on the steering wheel, six-speaker audio, electronically controlled brakes, headlamps auto off and rear window wiper/washer.

Standard equipment includes dual SRS airbags, ABS brakes, front seatbelt pretensioners with forcelimiters, power windows and power mirrors, electric power steering, climate control air conditioning with an electronic inverter compressor, a new design (card) remote control key, E-shift and push button start.

Prius is offered with one option – the i-Tech pack consisting of DVD-based, touch-screen satellite navigation, front seat side SRS airbags, curtain-shield airbags, vehicle stability control, Bluetooth handsfree mobile telephone technology, Smart Entry and Start, and premium nine-speaker JBL audio system with a six-disc in-dash CD changer.

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Toyota’s second-generation Prius is offered with an optional i-Tech pack.

The i-Tech pack adds the passive safety features of front seat side SRS airbags and curtainshield airbags.

It has the added active safety feature of vehicle stability control.

Techno features include Bluetooth hands-free mobile telephone compatibility, Smart Entry and Start, new generation DVD-based touch-screen satellite navigation and premium JBL audio system.

The premium audio system includes 6-CD in-dash multi-changer, cassette player and nine speakers.

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Demand for new generation Prius in Japan and the United States has far exceeded expectation.

Japanese dealers have taken 17,500 Prius orders in the vehicle’s first month of sale, four times expectation and far exceeding production capacity.

In America, Toyota holds 10,000 orders although new generation Prius does not go on sale until October 17.

Toyota is now considering increasing production at its Tsutsumi plant.

Toyota USA has received 3000 new private orders and 4000 advance orders from government and private fleets.

Another 1200 orders have come from TRAC, the company’s own rental car operation.

A further 1200 orders have flowed from the Prius Pioneers – an elite group of first time Prius buyers who are now given preferential status because of the leap of faith they exhibited by investing in first generation Prius at the outset.

Many of those first Prius buyers became outspoken advocates for the car and the concept.

Several USA Prius owners have begun their own websites to tell of their experiences.

One – www.john1701A is a virtual monument to the product.

Prius is due to go on sale in Europe in November.

Hybrid technology faces fierce competition in Europe from new generation highly efficient diesel cars in which particulate emissions have been brought under control.

Toyota is also a major player in the diesel market.

However longer term it views hybrid as the energy source of the future and it is likely special attention will be given to promoting the concept in Europe.

In Australia several of Toyota’s original Prius Pioneers have already placed orders for the second generation vehicle.

They include environmental lawyer Arnold Dix, his wife Dr. Karen Beckman and their children Sam, Hannah and Edward who made a family decision to purchase Prius.

"We live in country Victoria and we use our Prius to commute into Melbourne, Mr Dix said.

“If I drive it I get about 4.5 litres per hundred kilometres and if my wife drives she gets about 5.5.

“We found the onboard feedback for energy consumption, as well as energy savings through the regenerative braking system, really useful – not just for the Prius, but also as a way of training us to better understand fuel consumption generally.

Rental car companies have also ordered Prius to have them on fleet at time of launch.

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Toyota has delivered more than 473 first generation Prius in Australia in just two years of sales. Prius was launched in Australia in October 2001, four years after its international debut.

The average running rate of 20 a month is regarded as very promising in a totally new market.

The launch of the new generation Prius has created substantial interest especially amongst Toyota’s own network.

Toyota is set to expand its Prius dealership force to almost 90, comprising more than one in three of its total dealers in Australia.

First generation Prius was sold on a network of 49 dealers – 70 percent of which were in metropolitan areas.

The rush of new dealership applications has come as a result of the increasing viability of the Toyota Hybrid System as a mainstream business opportunity.

Toyota sets high standards for training its Prius technical and sales staff and requires Prius dealerships to carry specialised Prius tools.

Prius is covered by Toyota’s new vehicle warranty of three years and 100,000 kilometres.

Its high voltage battery system carries a five year and 100,000 kilometre warranty.

Corrosion perforation carries a five year warranty with unlimited kilometres.

Second generation Prius will expand Toyota’s customer base.

It is expected to give Toyota access to a wider range of early adopters, especially 35-49 year old professionals.

While in the private market Prius is expected to become the second vehicle in the household, there is the strong possibility many owners will progressively adopt it as their first vehicle of choice.

Buyers are expected to move out of premium small and medium four cylinder passenger cars and to move across from the prestige car market.

Many businesses and government organisations have chosen to purchase Prius as a means of preparing for the greater hybrid market to come.

Sales of first generation Prius were made on a trial basis to many government departments so they could assess the new technology.

In certain cases governments have now specified hybrid as part of their forward ordering.

The NSW state government requires that all departments with fleets above 99 vehicles have one hybrid for every 100 vehicles on fleet.

Prius is emerging from its presumed urban comfort-zone.

In Queensland Q-Fleet has run Prius between Brisbane and Townsville on several occasions with good result.

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Toyota will sell more than 300,000 hybrid vehicles by 2005 and more than two million by 2010.

The company has made a major commitment to petrol/electric hybrid power en route to releasing its first fuel cell vehicles.

Toyota has already delivered more than 150,000 hybrids - largely the first generation Prius.

However it also sells a series-parallel Hybrid Tarago, and a mild-hybrid Crown.

Plans are in place to substantially increase the range of hybrid vehicles it produces - including a hybrid version of its recently released Kluger mid-road SUV.

Toyota expects to manufacture 76,000 new generation Prius in the first year with 36,000 for domestic use and 40,000 to be sold offshore.

Toyota now has a global hybrid market share of 90 percent.

However it is actively marketing its Toyota Hybrid System II (THS II) to other manufacturers as a means of building the hybrid market.

Nissan will take up THS II in 2006 and General Motors is also in negotiation.

THS II is developed around a broad concept Hybrid Synergy Drive which is being used equally as a platform for petrol/electric hybrids like Prius and for new generation hydrogen vehicles.

Hybrid Synergy Drive is not a bridging technology to fuel cell vehicles.

It is the core system which will be used by green vehicles which combine an internal combustion engine with either a secondary battery, electric motor or fuel cell.

Hybrid and fuel cell vehicles will both be measured by Toyota using a performance parameter called Well to Wheel.

It is a measurement of the overall efficiency of a vehicle from the time of energy source extraction, e.g. oil well through to actual vehicle operation.

In broad terms a hybrid vehicle like Prius should have a well to wheel efficiency rating more than twice that of a conventional vehicle.

Ideally, a fuel cell vehicle should be three times more efficient than a conventional vehicle.

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Toyota has moved beyond traditional methods for comparing the efficiency of vehicles.

Its pioneering work to develop alternative automotive power sources has led Toyota to adopt the leading edge "well to wheel" method for measurement of efficiency.

The conventional way to measure the efficiency of vehicles is by the distance they can travel per unit of fuel consumed (mpg or l/100km).

Toyota engineers point out that this method presents difficulties if the vehicles being compared run on different kinds of fuel such as hydrogen or natural gas.

The well to wheel method expresses overall efficiency not only as a measure of how efficiently the vehicle itself uses energy (tank to wheel), but also factors in how efficiently the energy is obtained and transported to the car’s tank (well to tank).

Sophisticated computer modelling analyses multiple possible conversion pathways from feedstock to fuel.

The methodology can be applied to calculate energy inputs in the production of feedstocks as diverse as oil, gas, electricity and biomass.

Calculations can then be applied to the energy cost of the refining or production of fuels including petrol, diesel, electricity, compressed or liquid hydrogen, ethanol and bio-ester.

Tank to wheel calculations provide energy consumption figures (megajoules per kilometre) for the motive power source such as internal combustion engine, hybrid drive or fuel cell.

Overall efficiency is expressed as a percentage by multiplying the well to tank efficiency percentage figure by the tank to wheel percentage.

Toyota calculates the overall efficiency of petrol engined vehicles at 14 percent and the overall efficiency of new Prius a petrol/electric hybrid at 32 percent.

Its goal for a fuel cell hybrid vehicle is a well to wheel efficiency rating of 42 percent – three times better than a petrol engined vehicle and 1.3 times better than a petrol/electric hybrid vehicle.

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Toyota has reduced the price of its new Prius, making it far more affordable, even in the face of international moves to maintain the existing price structure.

The vastly improved second generation Prius will come to market in Australia for a base recommended retail price of $36,990*.

That is $3000 less than the current first generation car – and within reach of several popular conventional five door hatches.

An i-Tech pack which includes front side air bags, curtain air bags, vehicle stability control, smart-entry and start, DVD Satellite navigation, premium JBL sound system with 9 speakers and Bluetooth mobile phone compatibility will add $8100 to the recommended retail price.

However the $45,090* (rrp) Prius challenges most prestige vehicles of the same price for specification.

Toyota expects to deliver more than 50 Prius a month – almost double the current running rate. The Prius pricing policy for Australia is regarded as breakthrough.

In the United States new Prius at $US19,900 carries an identical recommended retail price to the previous model.

In Japan new generation Prius is available at a slight reduction – 2.15 million yen compared to 2.18 million yen for the superseded vehicle.

New Prius is priced significantly beneath the only other hybrid vehicle on the local market, which carries a recommended retail price of $48,900.

Prius is now regarded as a line-ball price competitor with conventional mid-sized five door hatches from rival Japanese and German manufacturers.

Toyota regards the new Prius pricing as an investment in the long term future of alternative technology.

It is important to make Prius’ transition into the mainstream automotive market as seamless as possible. Price should be removed as a constraint.

Prius’ price position was supportable in both the medium passenger vehicle market and in the prestige sector.

Toyota regards local volume expectations as conservative.

Initial reaction from government and fleet buyers alone had created significant expectation for demand.

Private sales – currently around 20 percent of Prius demand – were expected to rapidly expand.

Prius is now regarded as a legitimate contender in the private market.

Its big opportunity is likely to be amongst user choosers who will elect to take up Prius as part of a company purchase package.

Prius will appeal to technophiles who will want to adopt many of the technological achievements within the vehicle, without paying for it either in lack of performance or in a high purchase price.

* recommended retail pricing does not include dealer delivery or statutory charges.

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Toyota’s Prius was recently named one of the "66 Things Stars Want To Get Their Hands On This Summer" by Los Angeles Magazine.

According to California media outlets, hybrid cars are hip.

At a recent Hollywood movie premiere, five Toyota Prius pulled up next to each other. Leonardo DiCaprio, Cameron Diaz, Lucy Liu, Ed Begley Jr. and David Hyde Pierce have all been spotted with Prius.

Larry David, co-creator of Seinfeld and star of HBO’s Curb Your Enthusiasm, is just one of many Hollywood celebrities who drives one.

“I liked the idea of getting the benefits of a hybrid vehicle without having to plug in a battery,” he said in an interview.

“And after I test-drove the car, I liked everything about it. So now I’m a big fan.”

Leonardo DiCaprio is vocal about his hybrid. “I own a Toyota Prius; it’s a step in the right direction,” he says.

“It’s a gasoline-electric midsize car that gets about 50 miles per gallon. There is no extra inconvenience; I fill it up at the gas pump and it performs like any other car. But I fill it up about once every three weeks.”

Actor Ed Begley, Jr., is reportedly so committed to the hybrid concept that he won’t even ride in a conventional petrol engined car.

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Toyota has this year unveiled two significant concept cars to demonstrate its technological leadership in the field of alternative automotive power sources.

It unveiled the FINE-S hydrogen fuel-cell hybrid-electric concept vehicle at the 2003 North American International Auto Show in January and the Toyota CS&S at the Frankfurt Auto Show in September.

The FINE-S concept is an example of Toyota’s ongoing commitment to expand technology for environmentally friendly cars and trucks.

The futuristic high-performance look of the FINE-S reveals the potential styling versatility for fuel-cell vehicles.

The adaptability of the Toyota fuel cell system components make it possible to install the technology in a wide variety of vehicle types, shapes and sizes, based on a shared platform.

The FINE-S is representative of the future of fuel-cell vehicles as being high in styling and high in performance.

With the ability to install fuel-cell modular components throughout the vehicle, future fuel-cell vehicles will be capable of having individual electric power applied to all four wheels.

The FINE-S features a long wheelbase with very short front and rear overhangs and a sleek low-tothe- ground aerodynamic design.

The low centre-of-gravity coupled with an individual wheel torque control system will provide excellent performance and handling.

Inside, the FINE-S features a spacious cabin with a creative four-seat design that provides ample roominess and comfort.

The Toyota CS&S (Compact Sports & Specialty) concept car unveiled at the recent Frankfurt Motor Show is an open-top two-plus-two mid-engined sports car with a Hybrid Synergy Drive powertrain.

Its rear wheels are driven by a 1.5 litre petrol engine and its front wheels are driven by an electric motor to provide sporting character matched by eco-friendly performance.

The Toyota CS&S falls between the current Celica and MR2 models in size.

Four-wheel drive and excellent acceleration from the electric motor’s high torque underpin the car’s sporting character.

Toyota aims to develop the Hybrid Synergy Drive concept to create more potent petrol and electric power sources in order to achieve higher levels of performance.

The Hybrid Synergy Drive system incorporates a much more powerful electric motor than a conventional hybrid system, to reduce reliance on the petrol engine.

CS&S is a new concept in sports car design, displaying styling cues developed by Toyota’s ED2 studio in the South of France.

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Toyota’s new Hybrid Synergy Drive Prius has achieved a paradigm shift – to escape the inevitable trade off between fuel efficiency and power.

The new Prius has significantly improved performance. Acceleration time 0-100km/h has been slashed by two and a half seconds, to 10.9 seconds.

Standing 400-metre acceleration time has been cut by 1.4 seconds to 17.6 seconds.

Fuel economy has been improved to 4.4 litres/100km when tested to (ADR 81/01) on combined cycle.

Key contributors to Prius’ improved performance include increasing electric motor output 1.5 times by boosting the supply voltage and significant advances in the control system.

Toyota has also developed advanced new features such as energy optimisation management and torque-on-demand control.

The new Prius has 51.5 percent greater electric motor power and 7.5 percent more petrol engine power than the superseded model.

The combination of Prius’ new electric motor and improved petrol engine delivers combined maximum power of 82 kW at 85 km/h or higher and combined maximum torque of 478Nm at speeds up to 22km/h.**

Prius’ coefficient of drag has been slashed from 0.29 to 026.

Kerb weight has increased by 45kg, while delivering significantly increased space, versatility, safety and feature levels.

** Maximum combined engine and hybrid battery output and torque constantly available within a specified vehicle speed range (Toyota in-house testing).

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Toyota’s second-generation Prius hybrid vehicle has 478Nm of torque.

The combination of Prius new electric motor and improved petrol engine delivers a maximum 478Nm of torque at speeds up to 22km/h.**

This is more torque than many exotic vehicles, including:
• Aston Martin DB7 • Audi A8
• BMW M5/M3
• Chrysler Viper
• Ferrari 360/456/575
• Honda NSX
• Jaguar X200/X400/XJ8/8K8/XKR
• Lamborghini Murcielago
• Maserati Cambiocorsa/ GT
• Mercedes CLK/CL/SLK/SL/E/S
• Morgan Aero
• Porsche 911/Cayenne Turbo
• Ultima GTR
• Ford XR8/ BA GT
• Holden Commodore VYII SV8

** Maximum combined engine and hybrid battery output and torque constantly available within a specified vehicle speed range (Toyota in-house testing).

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Toyota’s new Hybrid Synergy Drive Prius aims to meet California’s strict new AT-PZEV emission regulations, Japan’s Ultra-Low Emission Levels and Euro IV regulations.

California’s Advanced Technology Partial Zero Emission Vehicle regulations are scheduled to go into effect in California in January 2005. Prius satisfies this regulation in advance of its enforcement.

Euro Step IV is scheduled for European introduction in January 2004.

Second-generation Prius’ emissions are a fraction of the Australian Design Rule allowance (equivalent to Euro II). Prius tailpipe emissions are lower than the requirements of Euro IV.

New Prius’ Emissions of carbon monoxide are seven percent of ADR allowance, and combined emissions of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen are two percent of ADR benchmark.

Prius was designed to set new benchmarks for clean emissions and fuel efficiency. CO2 emissions are directly related to fuel used, with any fuel economy improvement contributing to reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

Prius has fuel economy of 4.4 litres/100km when tested to ADR 81/01 (combined cycle) and produces 106 grams of CO2 per kilometre.

This represents a 15 percent improvement in fuel economy compared with the superseded model*.

Pruis fuel consumption is approximately half that of a petrol engine vehicle of the same size.

Special efforts have been made to reduce the amount of lead and chloride in the vehicle.

The new Prius has one tenth the lead content of the original (1997) Prius and one tenth the Chloride (vinyl chloride ) of the current model.

Extensive use has been made of fully recyclable Toyota Super Olefin Polymer - for the bumper covers, cowl louvre, pillar garnishes, rear door trim and upper door trim.

* Japanese model tested under factory conditions.

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The new Toyota Prius can be driven at low speeds on electric power only for up to two kilometres.

Second-generation Prius’ new EV Drive Mode is designed for quiet entry/exit from residential areas, reducing gas emissions in the owner’s garage and stop-start driving in heavy traffic and parking station queues.

The EV Drive Mode has an activation switch on the dashboard.

The EV Drive Mode will operate for up to two kilometres depending on road gradient, state of charge of the battery, vehicle speed and throttle pedal angle.

The vehicle will re-start its petrol engine if any of the following cases occur:
• the EV Drive mode is switched off
• state of battery change decreases below a specified level
• the accelerator pedal angle exceeds a specified value
• the HV battery temperature deviates from normal operating range.

The petrol engine in new Prius re-starts 40 percent more quickly than the engine in superseded Prius.

The transition from petrol engine off to on has been made smoother – because the generator (via Prius planetary gear power split/CVT) precisely controls the crank angle at which the petrol engine stops.

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Toyota’s Prius has a sophisticated petrol-electric series and parallel hybrid powertrain for reduced environmental impact.

Prius was the world’s first volume-selling hybrid-technology passenger car.

The second-generation Prius’ Toyota Hybrid System (THS II) driveline consists of a purpose-developed 1.5 litre petrol engine, a continuously variable transmission that also functions as a power-split device, a generator, a 50kW electric motor and reduction gears to the front axle.

As well as propelling the vehicle, the THS II driveline allows for energy saving regenerative braking. The Toyota Hybrid System II transmission acts as an electronically controlled continuously variable transmission (CVT) that can freely vary the engine speed.

It achieves this by controlling the generator’s revolutions, dispensing with the need for a conventional transmission.

The electronically controlled CVT smoothly adjusts the speed of the engine, generator and motor when the vehicle is accelerating or decelerating.

A single 32-bit electronic control unit (computer) for the Toyota Hybrid System II controls the engine, power-split/power transmission device, generator, motor, inverter and battery.

One set of planetary gears serves as both the CVT and power-split device.

The use of one set of planetary gears to achieve two roles provides a significant saving in weight and space under the bonnet compared with either a traditional automatic transmission or a belt-andpulley type CVT.

The power-split device divides the power from the petrol engine into two paths.

One goes directly to the electric motor and the reduction gears (which are on the same drive shaft), the other to the generator.

Engine power can be transmitted to the front axle via the mechanical path and the electrical path, or a mixture of both.

Some of the engine’s power output is transmitted to the electric motor, via the generator, as supplementary power for vehicle acceleration.

Second-generation Prius has the ability (using EV mode and depending on battery charge condition and road gradient) to travel up to two kilometres at low speeds on electric power alone.

Planetary Gear Set:

In the Prius’ planetary gear system, the engine output shaft drives the planetary gear carrier, and uses a set of pinion gears to simultaneously transmit power to the outer ring gear and the inner sun gear.

The shaft of the outer ring gear connects directly to the electric motor and (through the drive shaft), to the reduction gears and hence the front wheels.

The shaft of the sun gear drives the generator.

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Toyota’s Hybrid Synergy Drive can halve fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions compared with an equivalent-sized conventional vehicle.*

Prius’ achieves fuel economy of 4.4 litres/100km under the new Australian Design Rule 81/01 combined cycle.

This is approximately twice the city cycle fuel economy of a comparably sized conventional fourcylinder passenger car with automatic transmission.

The Toyota Hybrid System II also reduces toxic emissions of "gross pollutants" – carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen.

Prius’ emissions are well below the level permitted under AD81/01 for passenger cars.

HC & NOx (hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen) emissions are two percent of ADR requirements.

CO (Carbon monoxide) emissions are 7 percent of ADR requirements.

Toyota Prius achieves these improvements, while offering space for five adults, high levels of passive safety and smooth acceleration and response.

Energy saving features include regenerative braking and a state-of-the-art petrol engine that shuts down when not required.

Hybrid Systems:

Hybrid systems are automotive power plants that use both petrol engines and electric motors for motive power.

Conventionally, there are two kinds of hybrid systems:

i) series hybrids, which use a petrol engine to generate electricity for the electric motor (and sometimes batteries) to propel the vehicle

ii) parallel hybrids, which use both petrol engines and electric motors for motive power, and switch back and forth between them as driving conditions demand.

The Toyota Hybrid System:

The Toyota Hybrid System combines the best aspects of both series and parallel hybrids, for greater efficiency.

In addition, Toyota has reduced the size and weight of all the components – engine, generator, motor and battery – thereby providing more space for the passengers and further improving fuel economy.

The Toyota Hybrid System’s planetary gear power-split device divides the engine’s power along two paths, one to the generator to produce electricity and the other to drive the front wheels.

Controlling this power split is one of the secrets to the efficiency of the system.

The primary power source is a specially developed 1.5 litre Twin Cam Multi-valve Atkinson cycle (high expansion ratio) engine. It delivers maximum extraction of combustion gas expansion energy and low pumping and friction losses.

The engine achieves its best fuel consumption per unit of output when operating in the high-torque ranges.

Therefore, depending on conditions, the system controls the division of power between engine and electric motor – so the engine always operates in that range.

If extra power is required during acceleration, the Toyota Hybrid System II draws energy from the battery and sends it to the electric motor.

A characteristic of an electric motor (maximum torque of 400Nm from zero revolutions) provides the added benefit of highly responsive take-off.

Smooth Acceleration:

The Toyota Hybrid System therefore offers acceleration that matches or exceeds that of a conventional 2-litre car with automatic transmission.

Moreover, the Toyota Hybrid System driveline acts as an intelligent continuously variable transmission. There are no gear changes and so acceleration occurs without gearshift shock.

There is no torque converter and hence no efficiency loss through slippage.

When the vehicle is stopped, decelerating or running at a low speed, the engine automatically shuts off to save fuel and reduce exhaust emissions.

When the vehicle decelerates, the motor acts as a generator, converting the vehicle’s kinetic energy into electricity and sending it through the inverter to be stored in the battery.

* Based on testing to ADR81/01 on Camry 4-cylinder

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Toyota has applied breakthrough electrical and control technology to the hybrid system in Prius, to deliver increased performance and economy.

The Toyota Hybrid System II uses advanced electrical components - virtually all developed and manufactured in-house - to maximise operating and package efficiency.

The new Prius 50kW electric motor has the highest output per unit of weight and volume for an electric motor in the world

The new, more compact 201.6 volt battery has the highest output density (output per unit of weight) for a battery in the world.

Prius’ new motor-generator circuit operates to a maximum of 500 volts, to increase operating performance and efficiency.

The battery voltage is boosted from 201.6 volts direct current to a maximum of 500 volts alternating current for the electric motor by a semiconductor switching device or IGBT (insulated gate bipolar transistor).

The high-voltage power circuit for the motor and generator increases power by increasing voltage while keeping the current constant.

Development work for second-generation Prius also included improved insulation performance of motors that run on high voltage, developing the semiconductor transistor technology that supports large inverter output and improving soldering technologies to increase heat dissipation.

These developments have delivered significant performance improvements, and reductions in size and weight of components such as the electric motor and HV (hybrid vehicle) battery.

The motor, generator and inverter have a water cooling system.

The cooling system has its own radiator, located under the petrol engine radiator.

THS-II Battery:

The Toyota Hybrid System II HV (high-voltage) battery has 35 percent better input/output density than the battery of the previous Prius it replaces.

The number of cells has been reduced and the connection between the cells has been doubled from one spot to two, to reduce internal resistance and hence increase efficiency.

The new battery has 168 cells, consisting of 1.2 volt x six cells by 28 modules (compared with 38 modules in the superseded model).

The latest Prius battery confirms the progress made in sealed nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) technology, which was originally developed for electric vehicles.

The HV battery is the only major THS-II component manufactured outside Toyota.

Panasonic EV Energy - a joint venture of TMC and Matsushita Electric Industrial Co Ltd - makes the HV battery.

The new battery offers more than three times the power output of EV batteries, coupled with improved sealing and durability, and reduced weight.

The Toyota Hybrid System II ECU controls the generator and motor to ensure the battery maintains a constant charge so there is no need for recharging from an outside source.

The HV battery has its own cooling system.

Its sealed case is used as a stressed member in the new Prius body.

Electric Motor:

Prius’ new electric motor has 1.5 times the power of the superseded electric motor without increasing motor size.

The new motor operates on up to 500 volts.

It delivers 50kW of power from 1200 to 1540rpm and 400Nm of torque from zero to 1200rpm.

A world-first motor traction control system ensures the new Prius has optimum traction on low-grip surfaces.

Output in in the medium-speed range has increased by approximately 30 percent, through a newly developed over-modulation control system – in addition to the existing low and high-speed control methods.

Prius’ new electric motor is a compact, lightweight, high-output AC permanent magnet synchronoustype motor.

Its neodymium (permanent) magnets are arranged in a V-shape to improve drive torque and power output.

The electric motor provides a power boost for the petrol engine, ensuring smooth starts and responsive acceleration.

In some circumstances it can propel Prius while the petrol engine is stopped – including Prius’ new EV Drive Mode.

In addition, the motor is part of the regenerative braking system. It converts some of the kinetic energy of the decelerating vehicle into electricity, for storage in the battery.

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator:

Toyota has boosted the power output of Prius’ Toyota Hybrid System II high-efficiency AC permanent magnet synchronous generator.

The new generator has significantly increased its power output - to increase the electrical power available to run the electric motor and charge the battery.

The combination of 500rpm higher maximum petrol engine revolutions and a new five percent shorter final drive ratio means the generator has significantly increased revolutions for the same road speed.

The generator’s rotor has been strengthened, to permit an increase in maximum revolutions from 6500 to 10,000rpm.

In addition to supplying power, the THS-II system uses the generator to control the ratio of power distribution from Prius’ power-split device.

This is achieved by controlling the amount of electricity the generator produces and hence generator revolutions.

The generator also serves as a starter motor for the petrol engine.

Semi-conductor Switching Device:

The Toyota Hybrid System II’s all-new semi-conductor switching device has been tuned down to crystal level to minimise heat output and maximise efficiency.

It is 20 percent smaller than the inverter/converter unit it supersedes.

Prius’ new IGBT switching device (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) turns direct current from the battery into alternating current for the drive motor and increases the voltage from 201.6 to a maximum of 500 volts.

It also converts up to 500 volt alternating current from the generator and motor (in regenerative braking mode) into 201.6 volt direct current for storage in the battery.

Switching such a large current flow would normally create large amounts of heat.

Toyota has developed a unique, finely tuned transistor, to achieve low heat generation and high efficiency.

The inverter/converter circuitry features an intelligent power module for increased reliability. Power Control Unit:

The new Prius power control unit contains the semi-conductor AC/DC switching device and a DC/DC converter to create 12 volt DC.

The 12 volt DC is used to power all non THS-II systems in the car, such as lights, audio and windscreen wipers.

Integrating the control circuits in the new power control unit means the unit is the same size as the superseded unit, while delivering increased performance and efficiency.

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Toyota’s second-generation Prius has an improved Atkinson cycle petrol engine.

Petrol engine power has been increased by over 7.5 percent and the engine’s operating range has been increased by 500 revolutions.

The engine improvements include lighter pistons, reduced friction and increased under-bonnet package efficiency and reduced engine service weight.

Second-generation Prius has revised valve timing, to suit the engine’s higher operating range and to maximise efficiency.

In addition, the engine has a linkless electronic throttle, a new 32-bit electronic control unit (replacing the previous 16-bit ECU) and new, faster CAN (controller area network) communication between the key vehicle control systems – engine electrical, chassis electrical and the hybrid system.

The improved 1.5-litre Prius engine delivers 57W of power at 5000rpm and 115Nm of torque at 4000rpm.

Prius’ improved 1NZ-FXE engine has new pistons with a revised head shape, reduced wall thickness, reduced skirt area and increased resin-coating thickness.

Piston ring thickness and tension have been reduced, to minimise friction.

The inlet air cleaner system has a resonator to reduce intake noise levels.

Exhaust manifold wall thickness has been reduced, to reduce service weight and to reduce heat capacity, speeding warm-up time for the catalyst.

A new integrated radiator assembly has been adopted, to maximise usable under bonnet space. The new radiator assembly achieves a weight saving by combining the engine radiator, inverter radiator and air conditioner condenser.

Improvements to Prius’ fuel system include an aluminium main fuel tube, an aluminium purge tube and new multiplex layer plastic fuel tank, to save weight.

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Toyota Prius’ petrol engine is state-of-the-art for efficiency and low emissions in a volume-production reciprocating power plant.

Toyota has adopted leading-edge engine technology throughout the 1.5 litre Prius engine, for maximum fuel and package efficiency, and minimum emissions.

State-of-the-art features in the Prius engine include:
• an all-alloy construction cylinder head and engine block, for maximum thermal efficiency and minimum weight
• a Twin Cam Multi-valve cylinder head
• variable valve timing with intelligence (VVT-i)
• high-expansion ratio Atkinson operating cycle coupled with long piston stroke (bore and stroke dimensions are 75mm x 84.7mm)
• low-rpm engine operation
• full sequential fuel injection with 12-point fuel injector nozzles mounted in the inlet ports • an offset crankshaft centreline
• reduced reciprocating mass and lightweight valve train components, low friction pistons, piston rings and low-load valve springs
• and an integrated radiator assembly combining the engine radiator, inverter radiator and air conditioner condenser.

Additional fuel and emission saving technology includes advanced computer engine management, individual Toyota Direct Ignition for each of the four cylinders, electronic spark advance with a knock control system and a linkless electronic throttle (drive by wire).

Many of these features, including multi-point fuel injection, Twin Cam Multi-valve cylinder heads and direct ignition are standard equipment on all Toyota passenger vehicles.

The Prius engine – in the Otto cycle form – is used in the Echo model range.

Twin Cam Multi-valve:

The Prius engine has an aluminium alloy cylinder head for maximum thermal efficiency.

The cylinder head has two overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder.

The twin cam design provides for direct valve actuation, which minimises valve train inertia and allows for optimum cam profiles.

It results in more positive actuation and less free play.

Toyota employs four valves per cylinder on all its passenger car engines to increase intake valve area (and hence engine breathing) and to reduce valve inertia compared with a two-valve design of equivalent intake area.

The four-valves per cylinder concept also allows for a more efficient combustion chamber, with a central spark plug.

The four-valve design also allows the engine designer to employ milder valve timing, while still achieving full cylinder filling.

The Prius engine also has vertical intake ports, to further boost engine breathing.

The fuel injection nozzles are located in the inlet ports, to prevent wall wetting and fuel adhesion to the walls of the port, thereby reducing hydrocarbon emissions.

Variable Valve Timing:

The Toyota Prius engine has variable valve timing with intelligence.

VVT-i provides continual variations of the intake valve timing, to match the engine’s operating conditions.

It complements the Atkinson cycle concept.

Variable valve timing improves performance and fuel efficiency, and reduces vibration on engine startup and shut-down.

VVT-i engines are now fitted to Camry four cylinder, Celica, Echo, Kluger, Prado, RAV4, MR2, Tarago, Avensis and new generation Corolla.

Inlet timing can be varied over a range of 33 degrees.

The Prius engine has a compact cylinder head design, with an included valve angle of 33.5 degrees, for maximum efficiency.

The combustion chambers are almost entirely machined, to ensure minimum variance in combustion chamber volume across the four cylinders.

The compression ratio has been set at 13.0:1 – a high figure for an engine operating on unleaded petrol – to improve combustion efficiency and power output across the revolution range.

The combustion chambers in the Prius engine employ a slanted (oblique) squish design, to improve thermal efficiency and reduce the chance of engine knock (pre-ignition).

The squish angle has been shaped obliquely along the wall surface of the combustion chamber, to improve airflow, promote swirl and speed flame travel.

Special attention has been paid to cooling the combustion chamber, including provision of a water jacket between the exhaust port and the spark plug boss, to lower the operating temperature at the exhaust valve seat and improve cooling performance.

Engine package efficiency has been maximised and weight minimised by adopting an aluminium cylinder block and compact intake manifold design.

Service weight of the Prius engine is 84 kilograms.

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Toyota Prius’ 1NZ - FXE four-stroke reciprocating engine employs the Atkinson, or high-expansion, cycle for improved efficiency.

It has smaller combustion chambers and a higher expansion ratio than a conventional Otto cycle engine.

The Atkinson cycle design makes full use of combustion energy, by keeping the exhaust valves closed until the end of the expansion stroke.

The expansion stroke is extended until the expansion pressure has virtually dissipated, converting more of the combustion energy into torque on the crankshaft.

Toyota has combined the Atkinson cycle with a long-stroke engine design, offset crankshaft, direct ignition, twin-cam multi-valves and variable valve timing with intelligence, to further improve efficiency.

The Prius engine was designed to operate at below 5000rpm.

The low revolution limit enables the use of smaller, friction-reducing main, big-end and little-end bearings.

High-Expansion Ratio:

In a conventional (Otto) cycle engine, the compression stroke volume and expansion stroke volume are practically identical, and hence the compression ratio and expansion ratio are identical.

Any attempt to increase the expansion ratio results in an increase in compression ratio, and hence greater likelihood of engine-damaging engine knock or pre-ignition.

The Atkinson cycle engine solves this dilemma by delaying the closing of the intake valves. The intake valves remain open for the initial stage of the compression stroke (when the piston is ascending), effectively delaying the start of compression and hence reducing the compression ratio. The small combustion chamber volume in Prius still ensures a relatively high compression ratio of 13.0:1.

A small portion of the intake air that has been drawn into the cylinder during the intake phase is returned to the intake manifold.

This slight amount of back-flow into the intake manifold produces a benefit in partial load conditions. It allows for an increase in throttle valve opening, thereby reducing intake manifold vacuum and hence reducing intake pumping losses.

Two Ratios:

The expansion and compression ratios are determined by these formulae. Expansion ratio equals (expansion stroke volume + combustion chamber volume), divided by combustion chamber volume.

Compression ratio equals (compression stroke volume + combustion chamber volume), divided by combustion chamber volume.

Atkinson And Miller:

The Atkinson cycle was proposed in the 1880s by English engineer James Atkinson, to enable the compression stroke and expansion stroke to be set mechanically independently of each other.

Later, this concept was extended by the American R.H. Miller, who developed a supercharged system called the Miller cycle, in which the opening and closing of the intake valves was made adjustable.

The system offers high thermal efficiency but does not generate high output, so until now any practical application involved the addition of a supercharger.

Toyota is the first manufacturer to bring a naturally aspirated Atkinson Cycle engine to market.

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Toyota’s new Prius has the seamless acceleration of a continuously variable transmission (CVT) – without the need for a belt and pulleys.

Prius’ Toyota Hybrid System II acts as an electronically controlled CVT, which can freely vary the engine speed.

It achieves this by controlling the generator’s revolutions.

Therefore, the vehicle does not need a conventional transmission.

Prius’ power-split device operates via a compact planetary gear system, in which the engine output shaft drives the planetary gear carrier, and uses a set of pinion gears to simultaneously transmit power to the outer ring gear and the inner sun gear.

The shaft of the outer ring gear connects directly to the electric motor and (through the drive shaft) to the reduction gears and hence the front wheels.

The shaft of the sun gear drives the generator.

The use of one set of planetary gears to achieve two roles provides a significant saving in weight and space under the bonnet - compared with either a traditional automatic transmission or a belt and pulley type CVT.

There is no torque converter and hence no loss of energy through slippage in the driveline.

Second-generation Prius has higher petrol engine revolutions, higher electric generator revolutions and a shorter final drive ratio.

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Toyota’s hybrid-technology Prius offers seamless matching of petrol engine and electric motor power – for smooth, low-emission, low fuel consumption driving.

The petrol engine is the key component, driving through the power-split device (an advanced type of planetary gear assembly), which sends part of the power to the wheels and part to a generator.

Electricity from the generator can be fed directly to the electric motor to help propel the car, or through the inverter – to be converted into direct current and stored in the battery.

The combination of the THS II’s electronically controlled continuously variable transmission and electric motor assistance gives Prius smooth acceleration and deceleration, and excellent response. The 400Nm torque of the electric motor from zero revolutions gives Prius excellent initial acceleration.

For maximum acceleration, the system uses power from both the petrol engine and electric motor (using energy stored in the battery).

How THS II Works:

1) When moving off, moving at low speeds, descending long gentle hills and for other conditions where the petrol engine would not operate at peak efficiency, the engine is turned off. The electric motor alone propels the car. The new Prius has an EV Drive mode, so the driver can select electric drive only for special circumstances such as a quiet exit from a suburban area and congested traffic conditions.

2) During normal operations, the petrol engine’s power is split, with some power used to propel the car and the remainder used to generate electricity. The electricity is fed to the electric motor and/or the batteries, to assist in powering the car. The Toyota Hybrid System II computer controls the ratio of power to each path, for maximum efficiency.

3) The battery is regulated to maintain a constant charge. If the battery charge is low, the Toyota Hybrid System II uniquely sends more engine power to the generator to generate electricity. Prius is the only production hybrid to drive and charge the battery at the same time.

4) During full-throttle acceleration, additional energy is drawn from the battery to boost the electric motor’s output.

5) During deceleration or braking, the electric motor acts as a generator, transforming kinetic energy from the wheels into electricity. The recovered energy is stored in the battery.

6) The petrol engine shuts down automatically after a period of time when the vehicle is stopped.

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Toyota’s new Prius has increased performance, space, safety, comfort and features – for a minimal increase in weight.

Strict attention to vehicle weight has ensured high fuel efficiency, and optimum handling and braking.

Aluminium has been adopted for the front and rear bumpers, bonnet, rear hatch, brake calipers, some suspension members and fuel pipes.

The integrated engine/inverter/air conditioner compressor radiator is also made of aluminium. Prius also has a 45-litre multi-layer plastic fuel tank.

High strenght steel has been used extensively for the body, to strengthen its rigidity without increasing weight.

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Toyota’s second-generation Prius has a new multiplex communications system.

Prius’ new computer-to-computer communications system, known as a CAN (Controller Area Network), improves the speed of communications between the key vehicle control systems (engine, electrical and hybrid system).

The CAN uses an ISO Standard protocol and has a transmission speed of 500 kbps (500,000 bits per second) and a maximum communications speed of one million bits per second.

The CAN uses a multi-star style bus connection to link nine key control units, including the high voltage ECU, ENG-ECU, battery ECU, vehicle stability control ECU, EPS-ECU, gateway ECU, steering angle sensor, yaw rate and G sensor and DLC3.

In addition to the new CAN, Prius’ multiplex communication system includes AVC-LAN (audiovisual communication – local area network) and BEAN (Body Electrical Control System).

The AVC-LAN has two linked ECUs, as well as the audio head unit and multi display, and a maximum communications speed of 17.8kbps.

The BEAN has nine linked ECUs with a maximum communications speed of 10kbps.

A gateway ECU allows the three systems to exchange data between different protocols.

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Toyota’s second-generation Prius has medium-car levels of interior space in the overall length of a small car.

It is larger in every interior dimension than superseded Prius.

The key thought in Prius packaging design – "optimum inside, minimum outside" – was to provide comfort for five people, with luggage, while protecting the environment and conserving resources.

Prius’ compact drivetrain design and short overhangs maximise cabin space within its overall length.

The short overhangs also contribute to optimum handling.

The new Prius is 80mm longer than current Corolla sedan, but has Camry levels of interior space.

Prius’ front headroom and front legroom are equal to or greater than Camry.

Prius’ overall length has been increased by 135mm to 4445mm and its wheelbase has been increased by 150mm to 2700mm.

Prius’ wheelbase is now just 20mm shorter than Camry.

However, special attention to front wheel turning angle gives Prius a turning radius of just 5.2 metres.

Prius’ exterior width has been increased by 30mm to 1725mm – but special attention to packaging has delivered an increase of 62mm in interior width.

Prius’ overall height has increased by 5mm to 1490mm – to allow for high door openings and hence optimise vehicle entry and exit.

The new Prius has increased front and rear headroom, front and rear shoulder room, and front and rear legroom – compared with the superseded model.

Prius’ upright driving position also improves vision and aids city driving.

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Toyota’s new Prius has the luggage and storage capacity of a conventional medium car.

Five-door liftback Prius’ versatility and convenience features include a 60/40 split second-row seat that can be folded flat when not in use.

Prius has 456 litres of luggage volume (VDA method), a tonneau cover for the luggage area and a storage compartment under a foldable floorboard.

The floorboard can be removed to stand suitcases upright, or kept in place to provide under-floor storage for the tonneau and other items.

The luggage area has illumination from lamps in the deck-side trim.

Prius’ storage areas include:
• a large glovebox
• an upper glove box
• a large centre console box
• twin cupholders at the front of the centre console, and two more cupholders at the rear of the centre console
• front door pockets with bottle holders
• front seat-back pockets, and
• in-dash and overhead Auxiliary box.
The centre console has an auxiliary power outlet.

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Innovative interior features of the new Prius include a Formula One-style steering wheel with air conditioning and audio controls.

Prius equipped with the i-Tech Pack option has additional controls on the steering wheel for navigation and hands-free mobile telephone functions.

Prius has two-step reflective instruments, illuminated entry, vehicle information screen, by wire shift lever, climate control air conditioning, EV Drive mode and six-speaker tuner/CD audio system as standard equipment.

Prius’ new shift lever has five positions – Park, Reverse, Neutral, Drive and Brake.

The car will drive like a traditional automatic in Drive or Brake setting.

The Brake setting provides engine braking for low speed hill descents.

All four doors have anti-jam protection and the driver’s door window has auto up/down.

All windows in Prius have UV-cut glass and the rear window has privacy glass.

Prius’ cockpit layout also includes a multi-information touch-screen display in the centre console.

The screen can display the flow of energy through the THS II system and energy consumption, as well as audio status and air conditioner settings.

It is the touch-screen for the DVD-based satellite navigation system in Prius’ i-Tech Pack option.

The i-Tech Pack also includes Smart Entry and Start, nine-speaker premium JBL audio with 6-CD multi changer and cassette player, Bluetooth capability, front seat side airbags and side curtain shield airbags.

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Toyota’s second generation Prius has increased feature levels – in addition to its improved performance, space and economy.

Additional features above superseded Prius range from EV (electric drive) mode to a 60/40-split rear sear with three height-adjustable head restraints.

Active safety additions include motor traction control, Brake Assist, front foglamps and rear window washer/wiper.

Feature upgrades include cruise control, illuminated entry/exit, by wire technology for brake and shift lever, audio controls on the steering wheel, six-speaker audio system, 15-inch alloy wheels with aerodynamic resin caps, headlamps auto-off, overhead console with sunglasses holder and high-grade seat fabric.

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Toyota’s new Prius has world-first electric inverter compressor – for increased air conditioner efficiency and fuel efficiency.

The Prius system is an electric-drive scroll compressor and a world first for a mass-production model.

Inverter drive means the air conditioning system can operate independently of Prius’ petrol engine.

The petrol engine can therefore remain switched off when the vehicle is stationary or coasting - and Prius’ occupants can now enjoy the comfort of climate control air conditioning.

Extending the period the petrol engine can remain switched off increases fuel efficiency.

A brushless DC electric motor drives the scroll-type air conditioner compressor, using alternating current - a similar system to Prius’ 50kW electric propulsion motor.

Special features of Prius’ high-efficiency air conditioning system also include:
• fuzzy logic control
• bi-level flow, to provide fresh, dry external air to the upper cabin area and warm internal air to the footwell areas
• air conditioning controls on the steering wheel and on the multi-display screen
• a blower pulse control to regulate blower speed and hence increase fuel efficiency
• a humidity sensor function in the room temperature sensor to optimise the amount of dehumidification during air conditioner operation
• and a high-efficiency, compact, lightweight heater core and super-slim evaporator.
Prius has a new integrated radiator assembly to optimise under-bonnet space and minimise weight.

The new radiator assembly combines air conditioner condenser, engine radiator and HV radiator.

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Toyota’s second-generation Prius is whisper quiet inside.

Its petrol engine cuts seamlessly in and out of operation, as required.

A crankshaft position sensor ensures the engine stops with the crank angle in the ideal position for smooth restarting.

Interior noise levels have been minimised by reducing noise at the source and through a comprehensive package of sound-reduction measures.

Sound reduction measures at the source include an aluminium cylinder block and fully balanced crankshaft.

Road noise and wind noise have been minimised for increased comfort and to reduce driver fatigue.

Prius’ coefficient of drag has been reduced from 0.29 to 0.26 making it one of the world’s most aerodynamically efficient volume production five passenger and four-door vehicles.

Overbody aerodynamic features include a rear spoiler to smooth airflow off the roof/liftback.

Special attention was paid to underbody aerodynamics, using under covers, front and rear spats, rear bumper spoiler and front fender liners to smooth airflow under the vehicle.

Prius’ has a highly rigid body and underbody for reduced noise and vibration.

The body design includes substantial cowl reinforcement panels, a full-width dash cross member and dash reinforcement.

These cross-connected reinforcements add strength and rigidity and hence reduce vibration from the steering column.

There is substantial bracing on the rear suspension towers, C-pillars and the rear roof side members.

Prius’ aluminium bonnet has an inner insulator panel and each pillar has formed material to control wind noise and channel resonance.

Toyota has made extensive use of soundproof coating on the dash panel and the vehicle floor.

The inverter-driven scroll-type compressor used in the air conditioner, minimises noise and maximises fuel economy.

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Second-generation Prius has Toyota’s state-of-the-art 03 model year navigation system.

The system is optional as part of the Prius’ i-Tech Pack.

It offers 26 percent faster route search than the superseded model, as well as improved scroll and area search functions.

Improvements in the 03 model year system also include easy-to-use HMI (Human Machine Interface) screen design.

Toyota’s 03 model year navigation provides a choice of screen background and screen menu colours, and more powerful functions for showing street names and compass directions.

It also provides setting of destination via latitude and longitude reference points.

Toyota satellite navigation uses leading-edge DVD data storage.

DVD allows faster route calculation and recalculation than CD-ROM based systems.

A single DVD disc contains all road map data for Australia’s capital cities and major towns, equivalent to 16 street directories costing $600 and weighing 16 kilograms.

The Toyota system has touch-screen control for easy entry of route instructions.

A dual-map function can provide both a route overview and a close-up of the turns.

The system also has a user-friendly route preview function and provides for multi-destination input.

Additional destinations can be added to the route at any time while the vehicle is stationary.

As well as adding destinations, the user can re-order the destinations.

The in-dash display has provision to be oriented like a hard copy map.

It can point to the north or to the direction of travel as a means of easing driver recognition.

Voice instructions clearly tell the driver about upcoming intersections and other turns.

The DVD allows both the map and the voice guidance to quickly recalibrate and continue to the destination even if the driver misses a turn.

The "points of interest" library has been expanded.

It offers a large menu of tourist attractions, restaurants, hotels, shops, community services and amusements.

Up to 106 additional locations can be pre-programmed into the system.

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Toyota’s new Prius was designed to meet the world’s toughest crash safety standards.

It has a strong body, with a reinforced cabin, dual SRS airbag installation and force-limiting front seatbelt pretensioners.

Prius has passed a 40 percent offset deformable barrier test at an impact speed of 64km/h and has also met the European dynamic side impact test at 55km/h.

It has been tested for full-frontal collision barrier at 55km/h, roll over and rear moving barrier.

GOA Safety Body:

Prius’ body was developed using Toyota’s Global Outstanding Assessment (or GOA) process.

In the GOA process, Toyota reviews current and anticipated safety standards and designs the vehicle to exceed those standards. Toyota also has its own strict in-house standards.

Prius has been tested to new European standards, and Japanese and US requirements, as well as Toyota’s strict in-house goal of having the highest passive safety in its class.

The body has crumple zones front and rear, and a high-integrity cabin section.

The crumple zones are designed to progressively absorb impact energy. The cabin is designed to provide survival space for the occupants, including head and foot space.

New passive safety features in second-generation Prius include:
• a reinforced front bumper
• varying metal thickness joining the front side members, to control deformation of the members during impact
• design features to disperse impact collision energy via under floor reinforcement, floor tunnel reinforcement and rocker reinforcements
• strengthened cowl side and door belt lines, to disperse impact energy and minimise cabin deformation
• new tibia pads on the cabin front footwells, to minimise injury to the lower body in the event of a collision.

Prius’ new side impact collision protection measures include optimum placement of side impact beams and belt-line reinforcements.

High-strength steel and hot-stamp methods have been used to optimise the centre pillar reinforcement.

The new Prius body makes extensive use of super high-strength steel in the centre pillar and high strength steel sheet in many areas.

All the major longitudinal members in the vehicle, as well as the door skins, the entire front door surround and the majority of the rear door surround are pressed from hot stamp, high-strength steel or super high-strength steel sheet.

Prius has head impact protection (HIP) measures, including soft upper interior sections on the roof side rails and inner B-pillar.

The collapsible steering column has a collapsible lower bracket, breakaway bracket, energy absorbing plate and a contractile section.

The front seats are designed with careful positioning of the head restraint in relation to the seat back to lessen possible whiplash injury.

Prius i-Tech option pack has the additional passive safety features of front seat SRS side airbags and curtain shield airbags.

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Toyota’s second-generation Prius has an impressive active safety package with a large footprint for its overall dimensions and a rigid suspension platform.

Visibility has been optimised by Prius’ large windscreen area, large multi-reflector headlamps, front foglamps and new rear wiper/washer.

Prius’ seats, seating position and low-interior noise contribute to reduced chance of driver fatigue.

The new two-step reflective instruments reduce the time required to adjust eye position and focus from the road to the speedometer and back to the road.

Toyota Prius has breakthrough motor traction control, electric power-assisted rack and pinion steering and electronically controlled four-wheel disc brakes.

Standard equipment includes ABS anti-skid brakes with electronic brake force distribution, Brake Assist and energy-saving regenerative braking.

Prius with the optional i-Tech Pack has the added feature of vehicle stability control with steering assist.

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Toyota’s second-generation Prius has a state-of-the-art electronically controlled brake system.

Prius’ ECB system controls brake force for conventional braking, regenerative braking, motor protection control/traction control and skid control (ABS, electronic brake force distribution, brake assist and vehicle dynamic management).

The ECB brake system blends hydraulic/friction brake force and regenerative brake force to retard the vehicle.

It contributes to vehicle dynamic management, delivering cooperative control between braking force and Prius’ electric power steering system - to provide steering torque assistance during a wheel-skid situation or when braking on split mu surfaces.

The ECB system also provides Brake Assist and EBD functions.

It can adjust the fore/aft brake balance according to vehicle load and adjusts the right/left brake balance if the brakes are applied during cornering.

Toyota’s new Prius dispenses with the normal brake booster.

The system consists of brake input, power supply and pressure control portions.

During normal braking, the fluid pressure generated by the master cylinder does not directly actuate the wheel cylinders – it serves as a hydraulic pressure signal.

The actual control pressure is obtained by regulating the fluid pressure of the power source in the brake actuator which actuates the wheel cylinders.

The skid control ECU maintains communications with the electronic steering ECU and the hybrid system ECU via the high-speed CAN (Controller Area Network).

Prius’ skid control ECU has been changed from 16-bit to 32-bit on the second-generation model, to increase processing capability.

Regenerative Braking:

Prius’ regenerative system delivers a number of significant benefits over a conventional braking system.

Regenerative braking recovers energy - and hence improves fuel economy and lowers greenhouse gas emissions.

The regenerative braking system can provide the majority of the total braking force in low-speed, stop-start traffic, where little deceleration is required.

This significantly improves the fuel economy and emissions of a hybrid vehicle and further enhances the attractiveness of hybrid vehicles for city driving.

Regenerative braking also contributes to improved economy and lower emissions at higher speeds, with increases in fuel economy of up to 20 percent.

The electric motor acts as a generator, converting kinetic energy from the vehicle’s motion into a reusable form, electricity, which is stored in the battery.

Regenerative Operation:

The system acts on the front wheels – the most effective wheels for braking effort.

It can be activated in either of two ways.

When the accelerator pedal is released, the absence of pressure triggers a response from the Toyota Hybrid System II electronic control unit to begin regenerative braking.

In this example, the friction brakes are not engaged, but speed reduction equivalent to engine breaking on a conventional vehicle is induced.

If greater braking effort is required, the brake pedal is depressed and the electronic braking ECU engages both braking methods.

Friction Brakes And ABS:

Prius has impressive hydraulically controlled friction brakes, in addition to its regenerative braking system.

Prius has ventilated 255mm x 22mm front disc brakes and solid 269mm x 9mm rear discs.

The system includes ABS with electronic brake-force distribution and Brake Assist, as standard equipment.

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Toyota’s second-generation Prius has the additional active safety features of Brake Assist and Electronic Brake Force Distribution.

Brake Assist is designed to assist the driver in an emergency braking situation – where the driver cannot apply the high pedal force required to obtain the shortest possible braking distance.

Brake Assist interprets a quick, hard push of the brake pedal as emergency braking.

It supplements the braking power applied if the driver has not pushed hard enough on the brake pedal.

The Toyota system measures the speed and the force with which the pedal is pushed to determine whether the driver is attempting to brake rapidly.

The system then applies additional hydraulic pressure, to maximise braking performance.

The timing and degree of braking assistance are designed to ensure the driver does not discern anything unusual in the braking operation.

The system reduces the amount of assistance it provides when the driver intentionally eases the pressure on the pedal, allowing the driver to modulate braking forces.

The Toyota system means the driver can tailor the duration and severity of hard braking to suit the demands of sports driving or a potential accident situation.

Electronic Brake Force Distribution:

Electronic brake force distribution is a sophisticated replacement for the conventional load sensing and proportioning by-pass valve.

The system functions electronically rather than mechanically, via an algorithm in the brake system’s electronic control unit.

The EBD system in Prius can adjust the fore/aft brake balance according to vehicle load and the right/left brake balance – if the brakes are applied during cornering.

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The Toyota Prius has vehicle-speed-sensing electric motor power-assisted rack and pinion steering.

The electric-assisted steering system provides power assistance even when Prius’ petrol engine is stopped.

It reduces engine load and hence fuel consumption, and does not require hydraulic pipes and power-steering fluid.

The electric steering ECU has been changed from a 16-bit processing unit to 32-bit, to increase processing speed.

New features include the adoption of a secondary-collision energy absorbing mechanism on the steering column.

Prius’ rack and pinion has a gear ratio of 19.18:1.

The steering rack is mounted low on the subframe, to minimise bump steer.

The number of turns lock-to-lock has been reduced from 3.99 turns in superseded Prius to 3.61.

A large wheel articulation angle optimises turning radius for its 2700mm wheelbase.

Prius has a turning radius of 5.2 metres.

Models ordered with the Prius i-Tech Pack have an additional steering feature.

The electric steering is linked to the vehicle stability control.

S-VSC applies steering assistance to make the vehicle more stable.

For example, when braking on a split mu surface, the S-VSC can apply steering assistance to counter the yaw moment of the vehicle.

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Toyota’s second-generation Prius has improved all coil suspension, for a balance of handling, ride comfort and low noise, vibration and harshness (NVH).

All coil suspension also increases Prius’ resistance to bottoming when laden.

The rear suspension has been completely redesigned.

New features include multi-leaf linear control valve dampers front and rear.

The linear control valves provide linear damping force characteristics across the full range of piston velocities.

The linear-control valve dampers control body roll – and smooth the vehicle’s response to steering input – while absorbing road shock.

Prius has a highly rigid body, which provides a stable platform for the suspension.

The Prius hybrid vehicle has a large footprint on the road for its overall dimensions.

Wheelbase and front track have been increased in the second-generation model.

The new Prius has a wheelbase of 2700mm, front track of 1510mm mm and rear track of 1480mm. The front suspension is McPherson strut, with wide-based L-shaped lower arms to maximise suspension rigidity and provide crisp steering response.

It has anti-dive geometry.

The McPherson-strut damper units are gas-filled to provide consistent damper performance.

The stabiliser bar is attached to the strut body by ball joints, to reduce uncontrolled body roll.

Prius’ rear suspension configuration has been changed from torsion beam with toe-link control to torsion beam with toe-correcting bushing type.

It has anti-lift geometry.

This semi-independent rear suspension is a compact system that saves on weight and intrusion into the passenger and luggage compartments.

It consists of a U-shaped cross section axle beam and two long trailing arms.

Benefits of the U-shaped cross section beam system also include a built-in stabiliser bar and minimal camber change during cornering.

Two coil springs and low-pressure gas-filled linear control valve dampers control the rear suspension. The stabiliser bar is housed within the U-shaped beam.

Prius’ rear suspension has the added feature of toe-correcting bushes at the trailing arm mounting points - for increased drivability, stability and ride comfort.

The new Prius has 15 x 6JJ alloy wheels with 195/60 R15 Michelin Energy tyres.

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Toyota’s new Prius has a range of design features for added pedestrian safety.

The designers have allowed space between the aluminium bonnet and engine bay components for deformation.

The shape and design of the inner side of the bonnet is designed to minimise pedestrian head impact in the event of a collision.

The front bumper has an absorber to minimise leg impact.

Special attention has also been paid to the clearance between the lower part of the wiper pivot and the cowl panel to minimise impact.

Prius also has an easily deformable wiper bracket.

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Excel document of Prius Interior & Exterior

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Excel document of Features

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Excel document of Specifications

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